All about DNA and RNA

About DNA & RNA 

DNA : DNA is one kind of Nucleic Acid. DNA is the abbreviation of Deoxyribo Nucleic  Acid. It is called the barrier of Genetic characteristics. Mainly it remains in chromosome but sometimes it also can be founded into Mitochondria, Chloroplast even into some viruses.

Definition of DNA : The Nucleic Acid which stays in an alive cell,  does self mutation, controls all biological works & carries all genetic characteristics is called DNA ( Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid).

Brief history of DNA Discovery :  Frederich Miescher was the first inventor of DNA. In 1869, He specified a protein cell from a cyst & named it as Nucleon. After that he showed that  there was Alkaline protein named Phosphorus & Protamin which atomic mass was very high.  After this his student Altmann Renamed the Nucleon as Nucleic Acid. After their invention approximately 100 years no one cares about this molecule. But in 1953 James Watson & Franscis Crick gave it a physical structure & in 1963 they got novel prize for it.


Physical Structure of DNA : DNA is a bifilar molecule which called Double Helix. The bifilars become retro & theirs hand are made from Deoxyribose sugar (S) & Phosphate (P). It's step is made from Nitrogen Base.  Adenine (A),  Guanine (G),Cytosine (C) & Thymine (T)  are an important bases of it. Adenine base makes 2 Hydrogen bond with Thymine & Cytosine base makes 3 Hydrogen bond with Guanine. These bases are attached with sugar's 1st Carbon molecule  & Phosphate stays attached with Sugar's 5th Carbon.

Chemical structure of DNA : There stays De oxyribose Sugar, Phosphoric Acid, Nitrogen bases(Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine).  They are the main element of  DNA.

RNA : RNA is the abbreviation of Ribo Nucleic  Acid. It stays in all cell. About 90% RNA remain in Cytoplasm & other 10% stays in Nucleus. Mainly it stays in Nucleus as a helper of DNA & Nucleolus. Most of all RNA works as the genetic substance of plants.

Definition of RNA : The Nucleic acid which has Ribose Sugar & Uracil as main Nitrogen base is called RNA.

Physical Structure of RNA : Here RNA has one halix. Sometimes it looks like English alphabet U which called Hairpin Loop.

Chemical Structure of RNA : It's chemical structure is also similar as DNA 's structure. Just it has Uracil base instead of Thymine base. Otherwise all chemical molecules are same here.

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