Chemical Engineering : CONVEYOR

CONVEYOR

The choice of equipment for solid materials conveying depends on a large number of factors. Among them the important factors are capacity, necessary, shape, size of material and day direction of the material transportation (horizontal, vertical or angular)

Many types of conveyor are used for transporting various materials as per their necessity. Some of the most important are here-

1) Belt conveyor
2) Screw conveyor
3) Bucket or elevator or lift conveyor.
4) Pneumatic or air conveyor.

These conveyors are described accordingly.



1. BELT CONVEYOR

The belt conveyor are essentially a very simple piece of equipment. They are very versatile and mast widely used. It can conveyor loose or packaged loads over or long distance horizontally, verticality and any angular gradual slopes.

It consist of an endless belt on which the solids are transported. The endless belt can remain horizontal ir angular for the advantage of conveying. It run over by pulley and this driving pulley usually placed at the delivery end or the highest end to keep the belt conveyable.
plastic, leather, metal, cloth are generally used for making the conveying belt.

BELT CONVEYOR
BELT CONVEYOR


ADVANTAGES

1) It can transport material horizontal or angular.
2) It can convey loose or packaged solid.
3) It's operation and construction cost is low.
4) It is easier for handling
5) It is continues process.


DISADVANTAGES

1) It can't convey powdered sticky materials since it is open in construction.
2) It can't convey or lift materials more than 30° angle.


2. SCREW CONVEYOR

It is an important types of conveyor for transporting material in the form of finely divided, loose powder, sticky materials. It consists of rotating screw which push the materials along the pipes trough.

The speed of rotation of screw determine the rate of discharging solid at the end of conveyor and gives appropriate or precise content for feeding the materials in the reaction vassal.

SCREW CONVEYOR
SCREW CONVEYOR 


ADVANTAGES

1) It can convey powdered & sticky materials
2) It is either open or closed.
3) It has horizontally transportation system
4) It can be loaded & discharged at several points.
5) As these are closed, no material lass occurs.


DISADVANTAGES

1) It has low rotational speed
2) Its operating & construction cost is very high
3) It can't transport material more than 30° angle
4) It's capacity is generally limited.


3.ELEVATOR  or LIFT BUCKET CONVEYOR

A bucket is a kind of belt conveyor which has bucket fitted to the belt at regular closely spaced intervals.

They are used for lifting solid or liquids vertically or nearly vertically. The bucket are often loaded at the lower end & discharged in upper end. But it can verify due to advantage. The empty bucket are loaded from the feed end & they reach at discharged end & outlet the feed.

Bucket elevators are the simplest & the most dependable units for vertical lifting. They are available in wide range of capabilities and may operate in the open and or total enclosed.

This type of elevator can transport fine or small lump of materials such as gram, coal, sand etc.

LIFT BUCKET CONVEYOR
LIFT BUCKET CONVEYOR



ADVANTAGES

1) It is simple and most dependable
2) It can lift vertically
3) It can lift solid or liquids
4) It's construction and operation cost is low
5) It can transport small lump materials
6) Easier for handing


DISADVANTAGES

1) The running rate is very slow
2) Large height needed at the loading and discharge end of the conveyor.



4. PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR

One of the most important materials handling techniques in the chemical industry is pneumatic conveyance conveying of materials by a system of air over vertical & horizontal distance ranging from a few to several hundreds feet is called pneumatic or air conveying.This is suitable where the materials are powdered.

PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR
PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR


* The capacity of the pneumatic conveying system dependa upon-

1) Product bulk density & particle size and shape to some extent

2) Energy content of the conveying air over the entire system

3) Diameter of conveying line


PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR
PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR


4) Equivalent length of conveying line


* There are three types of pneumatic conveyors-

1) positive system or pressure system

2) Negative system or vacuum system

3) Combined system or pressure- vacuum system

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