History of chemistry | From ancient to modern era - linkchemist

History of chemistry | From ancient to modern era
History of chemistry | From ancient to modern era
Chemistry has not made by a day. It has a big history. Many scientists has worked for making chemistry useful. Since the ancient time scientists working on this subject. For their contribution we are blessed with many things such as: we can get Medicine, different kinds of toiletries, different kinds of food etc.

Alchemy tried to find out about the proto science of Chemistry but unfortunately he failed to find the destination. But for this attempt, his experiment helped him to made a stage for modern Chemistry. The variety started to flow out when Robert Boyle showed the difference between Alchemy & chemistry in 1661 in his work The Special Chymist. When scientists thought about this then they have started to apply scientific method in their work.

Chemistry is dignified as a science by a France scientists Antoine Lavoisier. He developed the law of Conservation of mass and known as the father of modern Chemistry. The history of chemistry become freaky with the help of thermodynamics, which work is specially done by Willard Gibbs.

The history of civilised people show the history of chemistry. People like to study about the properties of the world. They tried to find out the history about changing materials. They tried to change the materials of the earth and try to make them new. Potters found shinny things to make their commodities beautiful. Herdsmen, Brewers and vintners used to make cheese, beer and wine by the help of fermentation method. Women used to leach the lye from the wood ash for make soap as they could able to wash their clothes. Smith acquired the knowledge of making Bronze by mixing copper & tin together. Crafters acquired the knowledge of making glass.

In eighth century A. D., One of the first scientific method of study about materials was discovered by a Muslim philosopher, astronomer and scientists. He is also known by his Latinized name Geber who is known as the father of chemistry. He described about crystallization, sublimation, distillation and evaporation. He made a machine name alembic by which we can study about acids and used to distill. He has also developed an early Chemical arrangement system by using those properties which he studied for. His class was

1.Spirits which is the material that evaporate while heating.

2. Metals including as iron, tin, copper and lead.

3.Non flexible substance for which stone can be made into powders.

In Europe, classical chemistry was introduced by alchemists with the target on converting General metals into gold or silver. These target were failed but from these attempts some important discoveries find out.

Robert Boyle learned about the behavior of gases and discovered a relationship between volume and pressure of a gas. He also declared on his early understanding of atomic theory that, all reality and change can be described in terms of elementary particles and their motion. His first textbook The Special Cymist which he was written in 1661 , He tried to study about substances away from mystical associations with alchemy and towards scientific investigation.

In 1700s, at the age of wisdom had taken all over Europe.

Joseph Priestley disproved that the air was an in severable element. He proved that it was instead a mixers of gases when he isolated oxygen and went to discover seven other discreet gasses. Jacques Charles researched about Boyles' work and set up a direct relationship between temperature and pressure of gases. Joseph Proust has studied about the pure chemical compounds and declared the Law of Definite Proportion that a chemical compound will always have its own characteristics ratio of elemental components & it will have the ratio of Two to One ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

Portrait of Antonie and Marie-Anne Lavoisier have developed the metric system & naming the chemical compounds.
When Antonie was a tax collector then he developed the theory of metric system in order to find out the real weight and measures. His wife Marie-Anne Lavoisier helped him a lot by translating his English papers. She also used to draw the picture of illustrate of his experiments.
Lavoisier's desire on meticulous measurement leads to him to discover the law of Conservation of Mass. He published the Method of chemical Nomenclature in 1787 which containing the rules of naming chemical compounds. His first modern chemistry textbook was Elementary Treatise of Chemistry which he was written in 1789. In this book he clearly defined a chemical elements as a substance that cannot be reduced in weight by a chemical reaction and listed Oxygen, Iron, Carbon, Sulfur and nearly 30 other elements. Although the book had some errors, it was listed light and heat as elements.
Amedeo Avogadro was also contribute on Chemistry. An early age he was An Italian Lawyer. In 1800 he started to study on science and mathematics. Based on Boyle & Charles, He define the difference between atoms and molecules.
He agreed on the statement that equal volumes of Gas at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules. The number of molecules in 1 gram Molecular weight 1 mole sample of a pure substance is called Avogadro's Constant by his name. It's main value is determined as 6.023‌ into 10^23 molecules. It's important factor is used to find out the mass of reactants and products in chemical reaction.

At the time of fourth century BC, Democritus & Leucippus tried to prove that substance was not dividable as many small as they can. But they become fail in it. Because they could not able to apply their theory as the time was not scientific as now. The Greeks used to believed that this universe only can discovered by rational thinking. After two Millennium chemistry formed as advance. Then scientists tried to find out a method which called Transmutation. In this way, scientist tried to transform inexpensive things into Gold. The Arab, China & Europe made their important contribution at that time.

Modern Chemistry

When we think about modern chemistry the first thing come to our mind which is about 16th & 17th century. These century are known as the starting time of new modern chemistry. At that time there were a big development made in metallurgy, The Eduction way to metals from the ores. And that time the systematic quantitative experiment were bring out for the first time. In 1661, Robert Boyle established the Sceptical Chymist in which we can know about the relationship between pressure & volume of the air.
At the time of 18th century, Joseph Priestly the English clergyman discovered the Oxygen gas & he found that carbon bonds burn quickly when it come at the oxygen atmosphere which is called Combustion. Priestley discovered about the gas made by fermenting beer, which is known as Carbon dioxide. And this also same as the combustion process. But Priestley's method can't be continued. After being fail on vat of fermenting beer, he was prohibited for working on their factories by Brewers. After that Priestley find that the Carbon dioxide melt in water to produce seltzer water. That is why, he is known as the founder of the multibillion-doller carbonated soft drink industry. Chemistry has grown up quickly in this modern era & in this 21st century scientists are working for developing the Chemistry.

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