History of chemistry | From ancient to modern era

History of chemistry
History of chemistry | From ancient to modern era

History Of Chemistry 

Chemistry has not made by a day. It has a big history. Many scientists have worked for making chemistry useful. Since the ancient time scientists working on this subject. For their contribution, we are blessed with many things such as we can get Medicine, different kinds of toiletries, different kinds of food, etc.

Alchemy tried to find out about the proto-science of Chemistry but unfortunately, he failed to find the destination. But for this attempt, his experiment helped him to make a stage for modern Chemistry. The variety started to flow out when Robert Boyle showed the difference between Alchemy and chemistry in 1661 in his work The Special Chymist. When scientists thought about this then they have started to apply the scientific method in their work.

Chemistry is dignified as a science by a France scientists Antoine Lavoisier. He developed the law of Conservation of mass and known as the father of modern Chemistry. The history of chemistry become freaky with the help of thermodynamics, which works is specially done by Willard Gibbs.

The history of civilized people shows the history of chemistry. People like to study the properties of the world. They tried to find out the history of changing materials. They tried to change the materials of the earth and try to make them new. Potters found shiny things to make their commodities beautiful. Herdsmen, Brewers, and vintners used to make cheese, beer, and wine by the help of the fermentation method. Women used to leach the lye from the wood ash to make soap as they could able to wash their clothes. Smith acquired the knowledge of making Bronze by mixing copper and tin together. Crafters acquired the knowledge of making glass.

In the eighth century A. D., One of the first scientific method of study about materials was discovered by a Muslim philosopher, astronomer, and scientists. He is also known by his Latinized name Geber who is known as the father of chemistry. He described crystallization, sublimation, distillation, and evaporation. He made a machine name alembic by which we can study about acids and used to distill. He has also developed an early Chemical arrangement system by using those properties which he studied for. His class was


1.Spirits which is the material that evaporates while heating.


2. Metals including as iron, tin, copper, and lead.


3.Nonflexible substance for which stone can be made into powders.


In Europe, classical chemistry was introduced by alchemists with the target on converting General metals into gold or silver. These targets were failed but from these attempts, some important discoveries find out.

Robert Boyle learned about the behavior of gases and discovered a relationship between volume and pressure of a gas. He also declared on his early understanding of the atomic theory that, all reality and change can be described in terms of elementary particles and their motion. His first textbook The Special Cymist which he was written in 1661, He tried to study about substances away from mystical associations with alchemy and towards the scientific investigation.
In the 1700s, at the age of wisdom had taken all over Europe.

Joseph Priestley disproved that the air was an in the severable element. He proved that it was instead a mixer of gases when he isolated oxygen and went to discover seven other discreet gasses. Jacques Charles researched about Boyles' work and set up a direct relationship between temperature and pressure of gases. Joseph Proust has studied about the pure chemical compounds and declared the Law of Definite Proportion that a chemical compound will always have its own characteristics ratio of elemental components and it will have the ratio of Two to One ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

Portrait of Antonie and Marie-Anne Lavoisier have developed the metric system and naming the chemical compounds.

When Antonie was a tax collector then he developed the theory of metric system in order to find out the real weight and measures. His wife Marie-Anne Lavoisier helped him a lot by translating his English papers. She also used to draw the picture of illustrating of his experiments.

Lavoisier's desire on meticulous measurement leads to him to discover the law of Conservation of Mass. He published the Method of chemical Nomenclature in 1787 which contains the rules of naming chemical compounds. His first modern chemistry textbook was Elementary Treatise of Chemistry which he was written in 1789. In this book, he clearly defined chemical elements as a substance that cannot be reduced in weight by a chemical reaction and listed Oxygen, Iron, Carbon, Sulfur and nearly 30 other elements. Although the book had some errors, it was listed light and heat as elements.

Amedeo Avogadro was also contributed on Chemistry. An early age he was An Italian Lawyer. In 1800 he started to study on science and mathematics. Based on Boyle and Charles, He defines the difference between atoms and molecules.

He agreed on the statement that equal volumes of Gas at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules. The number of molecules in 1 gram Molecular weight 1 mole sample of a pure substance is called Avogadro's Constant by his name. Its main value is determined as 6.023‌ into 10^23 molecules. Its important factor is used to find out the mass of reactants and products in the chemical reaction.

At the time of fourth century BC, Democritus and Leucippus tried to prove that substance was not dividable as many small as they can. But they become fail in it. Because they could not able to apply their theory as the time was not scientific as now. The Greeks used to believe that this universe only can be discovered by rational thinking. After two Millennium chemistry formed as advance. Then scientists tried to find out a method called Transmutation. In this way, the scientist tried to transform inexpensive things into Gold. The Arab, China and Europe made their important contribution at that time.
Modern Chemistry

When we think about modern chemistry the first thing comes to our mind which is about the 16th and 17th century. These centuries are known as the starting time of new modern chemistry. At that time there was a big development made in metallurgy, The Education way to metals from the ores. And that time the systematic quantitative experiment brought out for the first time. In 1661, Robert Boyle established the Sceptical Chymist in which we can know about the relationship between pressure and volume of the air.

At the time of 18th century, Joseph Priestly the English clergyman discovered the Oxygen gas and he found that carbon bonds burn quickly when it comes at the oxygen atmosphere which is called Combustion. Priestley discovered the gas made by fermenting beer, which is known as Carbon dioxide. And this also the same as the combustion process. But Priestley's method can't be continued. After failing on a vat of fermenting beer, he was prohibited for working on their factories by Brewers. After that Priestley finds that the Carbon dioxide melts in water to produce seltzer water. That is why he is known as the founder of the multi-billion-dollar carbonated soft drink industry. Chemistry has grown up quickly in this modern era and in this 21st century, scientists are working for developing the Chemistry.






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